The Church of St. Saviour Pantepoptes

The Church of St. Saviour Pantepoptes, the All- Seeing (Eski Imaret Djamissi), the Church of S. Saviour Pantocrator, the All-Highly effective (Zeirek Kiliss£ Djamissi), and the inside of S. Saviour-in- the-Chora (Kahriyeh Djamissi), recall the interval of the Comneni and the Angeli (1081-1204).

Of their erection girls of appreciable significance within the historical past of Constantinople had an element. The primary was constructed by Anna Dalassena, the mom of Alexius I. Comnenus; the final was restored by his mother-in-law, Mary Ducaena, a Bulgarian princess well-known for her magnificence; the second was an erection of the Empress of John I. Comnenus, the daughter of Geysa I., King of Hungary. These church buildings symbolize the age when Constantinople was stirred by the march of the sooner Crusades via the territory of the Empire, when Peter the Hermit and Godfrey de Bouillon encamped their followers within reach of town partitions, to be dazzled by the splendours of the Palace of Blachemae, and cajoled by the diplomacy of Alexius I. Comnenus. Additionally they recall the time when Henrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice, introduced his fleet and the troops of the Fourth Campaign to the Golden Horn, and based the short-lived Latin Empire of Constantinople. It was on the terraced floor beside the Church of Pantepoptes that the Emperor Alexius Murtzuplus pitched his vermilion tents and drew up his reserve forces. There he stood to see the partitions on the shore beneath attacked by the Venetian ships and carried by Frankish knights. From that place he fled on the strategy of a physique of the enemy’s horsemen, and beneath his un-stricken vermilion tent Rely Baldwin of Flanders and Hainaut, quickly to succeed him as Latin Emperor of Constantinople, spent the night time of that memorable day.

The monastery of the Church of the Pantocrator

The monastery of the Church of the Pantocrator turned the headquarters of the Venetians through the Latin occupation of town. Within the relations of Western and Jap Christians to one another through the interval of the Crusades there’s nothing of which we are able to really feel proud. The previous have been barbarous, the latter have been decadent; neither of them worthy to get better the San Graal looking for which a lot heroism and devotion have been displayed for 2 centuries. However it’s nicely to do not forget that the encounter of the East and the West throughout these expeditions contributed not slightly to the “infiltration,” because it has fortunately been phrased, “of concepts, information, and artwork from the Grecised Empire into Western Europe.” It introduced the affect of an older and riper civilisation to bear upon the youthful life that had come into the world, and aided that life to evolve a brand new and higher order of issues.


Historic curiosity is St. Saviour within the  Chora

One other church of historic curiosity is St. Saviour within the  Chora (nation), now Kahriyeh Djamissi, and popularly often known as the Mosaic Mosque, on account of the exceptional mosaics it nonetheless accommodates. It was clearly in existence earlier to the yr 418, as thereafter it stood throughout the line of the Wall of Anthemius, and couldn’t then purchase the excellence of being located “within the nation.” Accordingly, it’s a topographical landmark as regards the unique extent of the town, solely second in significance to Isa Kapou Mesdjidi, which we’ve seen signifies the road of the Con- stantinian Wall, the place of the primary Golden Gate, and the scenario of the Exokionion. Like each church with so lengthy a life, S. Saviour-in-the- Chora has recognized many modifications. It noticed its finest days within the fourteenth century, when it was completely renovated by Theodore Metochites, and invested with the splendour which nonetheless glows upon its partitions, and makes it one of the vital stunning of the outdated church buildings of the Byzantine world.

Church of St. John the Baptist

Not much less attention-grabbing traditionally is the Church of St. John the Baptist (Mir-Akhor Djamissi), located within the quarter of Psamatia. It was based about 463 by Studius, a Roman patrician who, like many different individuals, when outdated Rome was tottering to its fall, fled from the West to the East, as when New Rome neared its finish, some thousand years later, males escaped from the East to the West The church was hooked up to a big monastery belonging to the order of the Acoemetae or Sleepless Monks, who had been so named as a result of they celebrated Divine service of their church buildings day and night time with out intermission. In accordance with the unique structure of the society the members of the order represented numerous nation-alities, Greek, Latin, Syrian, and had been divided into firms which handed from hand at hand, in unbroken succession, the censer of perpetual prayer and reward. They sought thus to make the worship of God’s saints on earth resemble that of the meeting gathered from all nations and peoples and tongues that serves Him with out ceasing in heaven.     Even thus of outdated our ancestors, throughout the nonetheless area of huge cathedral or conventual church Their vigils stored; the place tapers day and night time On the dim altar burned frequently.

In token that the Home was evermore watching to God. Non secular males had been theyj Nor would their purpose, tutored to aspire Above this transitory world, permit That there ought to move a second of the yr, when of their land, the Almighty’s service ceased.


Constantinople fell into the palms of its Turkish conquerors in 1453

Constantinople was subsequently removed from being a wealthy and splendid metropolis when it fell into the palms of its Turkish conquerors in 1453, and the shortage of the monuments of its former wealth and grandeur should not be ascribed wholly to the motion of its new masters. The ravages of time, and the vandalism of the Latin Crusaders, had left little for different impolite palms to destroy.

In his coping with the spiritual rights of the Christian neighborhood the Ottoman lord of Con-stantinople proved conciliatory. Whereas appropriating S. Sophia and a number of other different church buildings for Moslem use, he allowed the Greeks to retain a ample variety of their former locations of worship.

Chief prelate of the Nice Orthodox Church

He, furthermore, ordered the free election of a brand new patriarch, who ought to get pleasure from, so far as attainable below altered circumstances, the privileges which the chief prelate of the Nice Orthodox Church had previously possessed. Upon the election of Gennadius to the vacant submit, the Sultan obtained him graciously on the palace, and introduced him with a precious pastoral cross, saying “ Be patriarch and be at peace. Rely on my friendship as long as thou desirest it, and thou shalt get pleasure from all of the privileges of thy redecessors.” The Church of the Holy Apostles, solely second in reputation to S. Sophia, was assigned to the patriarch as a cathedral, and he was not solely allowed free entry to the Seraglio, however was even visited by the Sultan on the patriarchate. The lack of S. Sophia was, certainly, a horrible humiliation, one from which the Greek Church has by no means recovered; a humiliation which all Christendom feels to this hour. However the preservation of the material is probably on account of the truth that it handed into the palms of the conquerors. It’s troublesome to see how the Greek neighborhood may have maintained that wonderful pile, even “shorn of its beams, after 1458. On the time of the deadly siege, the inhabitants of town counted at most 100 thousand souls. When town fell, upwards of fifty thousand of its inhabitants had been bought into captivity. Nor did the following efforts of the Sultan to draw Christians to town meet with nice success. Therefore in depth parts of town had been deserted by the Christian inhabitants, on account of paucity of numbers, and the dread impressed by Turkish neighbours. Even the Patriarch Gennadius quickly begged to be transferred from the Church of the Holy Apostles to the Church of S. Mary Pammacaristos, in a district the place Greeks had been extra quite a few.


It is rather pure

It is rather pure, when considerate males tread the street which skirts these historic fortifications, that the thoughts must be profoundly impressed by the self-importance of earthly may and greatness. On the one hand, the best way is strewn with the wreck and damage of ramparts as soon as deemed impregnable:

O’er every mouldering tower,

Dim with the mist of years, gray flits the shade of energy.

Alternatively, stretch nice silent cemeteries, beneath whose darkish cypresses lies the mud of a lifeless multitude greater than might be numbered. As one has expressed the sensation woke up by this spectacle of wreckage and mortality, “ It’s strolling via the valley of the Shadow of Dying.” And but, seeing there have to be an finish to all issues, is it not wiser and extra simply to dwell relatively upon the glory that crowns these bulwarks for his or her lengthy defence of the civilised lifetime of the world ?

For a full account of the Turkish Conquest, see E. Pears’ Tht Destruction of the Greek Empire.

Among the many Church buildings of the town

Constantinopole was a metropolis of church buildings. Clavijo, the Spanish envoy, who visited the town in 1408, was assured that it was hallowed by the presence of at least 8000 sanctuaries, counting massive and small  This was clearly an exaggeration, supposed to impress the stranger s thoughts with a due sense of the town’s grandeur and sacredness. Ducange in his nice work, Constantinopolis Christiana, offers the names of some 400 church buildings talked about by the Byzantine authors whose works he had examined.

Wider acquaintance with Byzantine literature

However a wider acquaintance with Byzantine literature because the time of that nice scholar of the antiquities of Constantinople has found the names of many church buildings not upon his record It’s subsequently inconceivable to succeed in actual figures right here, and we have to be content material with the imprecise assertion that the quantity was so massive as to kind a hanging characteristic of the town’s side This was solely what could be anticipated in a metropolis the place the variety of church buildings can be decided not solely by the strange non secular wants of a religious inhabitants, but in addition by the calls for of the numerous monasteries which sought safety from violence behind the bulwarks of the capital, however the temptations of the world, the flesh, and the satan, encountered there. What does trigger shock, nevertheless, is that so few of the quite a few church buildings which as soon as adorned the town, and embodied the piety of its individuals, have left one stone .standing upon one other to recall their existence. At most, thirty-five stay, and of those a number of of them are so dilapidated that they solely serve for the identification of an fascinating website, or to emphasise the self-importance of earthly issues.




Emperor embarked or disembarked

Right here the Emperor embarked or disembarked when transferring in his imperial barge from one a part of town to a different by water. One of many items of statuary, representing a lion attacking a bull, bestowed upon this Marine Residence the identify Bucoleon (The Bull and Lion), below which designation it’s ceaselessly talked about in Byzantine historical past. There was enacted the tragedy of the assassination of the noble Nicephorus Phocas by John Zimisces, with the connivance of the Empress Theophano, the sufferer’s spouse; a typical occasion of the intrigues and crimes that usually dishonoured the palace of the Byzantine emperors. The story has not too long ago been advised by the sensible pen of Mr. Frederic Harrison, and subsequently should not be repeated. However the customer to the spot can recall the occasion with startling vividness, so properly preserved is the stage on which the tragedy was acted. Instantly reverse, on the Asiatic shore, is Chalcedon, the place the conspirators joined Zimisces to proceed to the scene of their merciless work The Sea of Marmora over which, on that deadly evening, a snowstorm unfold a veil to cover the boat which bore the conspirators throughout the sleeping waters, comes as much as the very base of the palace. From one of many palace home windows overhanging the ocean, a basket, hooked up to a rope, was let down many times to the boat, and many times drawn up, with one conspirator in it at a time—Zimisces being the final —till the entire band stood throughout the imperial abode. And someplace within the vaulted constructing we nonetheless discover on the water s edge, and whose ruins appear haunted by evil ghosts, was the chamber during which the doomed emperor lay slumbering on the ground, and was rudely woke up to know all of the bitterness of ingratitude and the sharpness of a merciless demise. Geography and topography are definitely the eyes of historical past.

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Bucoleon is the attractive Church erected by Justinian the Nice

To the west of the Bucoleon is the attractive Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus, erected by Justinian the Nice; for some account of which the reader is referred to the chapters on the church buildings of town. The district extending thence to the traditional Gate of S. iEmilianus (Daoud Pasha Kapoussi) is exceptional for having been occupied by the synthetic harbours, constructed, every so often, on the southern facet of town within the curiosity of commerce, or for the usage of the imperial navy. They have been 4 in quantity, and, however the modifications of centuries, they’ve left their impress upon the bottom to a level which permits their website and contour to be clearly recognized.


The assault upon the partitions alongside this aspect of the town

Of the historic occasions of which the Golden Horn has been the theatre, a very powerful are: first, the assault upon the partitions alongside this aspect of the town, in 1203, and once more in 1204, by the Venetian fleet which accompanied the Fourth Campaign; second, the transportation by Sultan Mehemet into its waters in 1458, of warships over the hill that separates the harbour from the Bosporus. The actions of the Venetian fleet and of the military which accompanied it may be adopted step-by-step, so minute is the outline of Ville – Hardouin and so unaltered the topography of the nation. Upon approaching the town the invaders put in at San Stefano, now a favorite suburban resort upon the Sea of Marmora. A south wind carried them subsequent to Scutari. From that time they crossed to the bay now occupied by the Palace of Dolma Bahce, close to Beshiktash. There the military landed, and advancing alongside the shore attacked the tower to which the northern finish of the chain throughout the harbour’s mouth was fixed. Upon the seize of the tower after a feeble resistance, the chain was lower, and the fleet of Venice underneath the command of Dandolo, flying the ensign of S. Mark, rode into the Golden Horn and made for the pinnacle of the harbour. On the identical time, the troops marched in direction of the identical level, alongside the northern shore, the place Cassim Pasha and Haskeui are actually located. On the latter suburb they crossed the stone bridge that led to Eyoub on the southern financial institution.

Seized the hill dealing with the portion of the town partitions

Then turning eastwards, they seized the hill dealing with the portion of the town partitions above which the home windows and domes of the Palace of Blachernse seemed in direction of the west. Whereas the military ready to assault that time, the ships of Dandolo stood earlier than the harbour partitions, in a protracted line from Aivan Serai to the Phanar and the neighbourhood of the current Internal Bridge. A determined assault adopted, by which twenty-five towers have been carried by the Venetians, and the day would have been received, however for the repulse of the land forces and the need to hasten to their reduction. Quickly a revolution inside the metropolis towards the usurper whom the Crusaders had come to depose, and in favour of the restoration of Isaac Angelus, whose declare to the throne they supported, appeared to carry the battle to an finish. As an indication that amicable relations had been established, and to keep away from the hazard of indignant collisions with the residents, the invaders eliminated their forces to the northern aspect of the Golden Horn.




Octagonal hall enclosed in a square

The throne-room, for instance, was, as we shall find in the sequel, almost a facsimile of the Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus. Like that church it was an octagonal hall enclosed in a square, and surmounted by a dome pierced by windows.

Each division of the octagon formed a bay under a semi-dome, and above the bays was a rich entablature, with a cornice that projected so as to constitute a gallery. The floor was paved with slabs of porphyry and variegated marbles, arranged to form beautiful designs and set in borders of silver, while walls and vaults gleamed with mosaics. The hall was entered from the west, and in the bay directly opposite stood the throne, with an icon of Christ in mosaic in the conch above it The bay immediately to the south of the throne was the emperors robing-room, leading to a chapel in which his robes of state, his crowns and arms, and two enameled gold shields, studded with pearls and precious stones, were kept under the guardianship of S. Theodore. The other state rooms of the palace were all varieties of the same type, displaying more or less skill and taste, according to the fluctuations of art in Constantinople. Of all the magnificence that once adorned these slopes, nothing remains but unshapely masses of brickwork, broken shafts, fallen capitals and empty sarcophagi 1 Slopes that vied with the Palatine as a seat of power, they are without a vestige of the grandeur that lingers around the ruined home of the Caesars! The higher part of the site of the palace is now occupied by the Mosque of Sultan Achmed, the six minarets of which, combined with the four minarets of S. Sophia, make so striking a feature in the aspect of this part of the city. Upon the lower slopes lives a Turkish population that never dreams of the splendour buried beneath its humble dwellings.

Ruins of the residence of Justinian

Close to Tchalady Kapou, and at the water’s edge, are the ungainly ruins of the residence of Justinian the Great and Theodora, before their accession to the throne. Here began the romance of their lives. In course of time additional buildings were put up at this point, and the group thus formed became the Marine Residence attached to the Great Palace. Here was the little harbor at the service of the Court, with marble steps descending to the water from a quay paved with marble, and adorned with many marble figures of lions, bears, bulls, and ostriches.