Reign of the current Sultan

However the Atmeidan has develop into in itself well-known throughout the reign of the current Sultan by its historic associations associations that are much more attention-grabbing than even the antiquarian treasures that it accommodates; for it was right here that, throughout the destruction of the Janissaries in 1823, that fated physique made a vigorous although ineffectual stand towards the troops of their Imperial grasp. Hundreds are stated to have fallen on this sq. alone by the weapons of the soldier}’ of the Nizam Attiek,* and the musketry to which they had been uncovered from the home windows of the neighbouring homes. Right here, too, a number of of the ringleaders had been captured, and hanged by order of the Sultan, on a big plane-tree close to the gate main into the outer court docket of the mosque, which has since been known as by the Turks, “ the Tree of Groans.”

Tlte inside of Sultan Achmct is mainly outstanding, architecturally, for the immense measurement of the 4 columns which assist the dome; for its spacious and stylish galleries, roofed with mosaic; and for its lofty marble pulpit. Its paramount declare to curiosity exists, nevertheless, within the reality, that it was inside these partitions that the Sandjak Sherif, or Sacred Commonplace of Mahomet was uncovered, after the refusal of the Janissaries to submit themselves to the desire of the Sultan.

The Sandjak Sherif

The Sandjak Sherif had not been publicly exhibited within the capital for half a century; and the thought was a most politic one, as all the passion and fanaticism of the empire was positive to he enlisted beneath its folds. This commonplace, so revered by all good Musselmauns, is believed to have been the nether garment of Mahomet, and is essentially the most solemn relic possessed by his disciples; and its look rallied directly each religious Moslem within the ranks of the sovereign.

A procession was shaped from the Imperial Treasury to the mosque of Sultan Achmet; the Sultan, attended by all his court docket and family, was preceded by the Ulema and Softas of town, rehearsing verses from the Koran. Public criers introduced the exhibition of the holy commonplace all through the capital, and the thrill was past all precedent.

“When the cortege reached the mosque, which they entered by the good gate reverse the Atmcidan, the Chcek-Islam mounted the steps of the pulpit, and planted the Sandjak Sherif there with holy reverence; and as he did so, tilt* Sultan pronounced an anathema towards all those that refused to obey an authority so supported.

 

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Detachment of the Seraskier’s guard

Often, a detachment of the Seraskier’s guard go into the sq., and after having demurely walked their horses from beneath the august kapousi, or gate, out of the blue break right into a brisker tempo as they pace on their errand, scattering the lounging populace to the precise and left, as their keen horses sure from the stroke of the iron stirrup. And effectively might they hasten on their manner, for these errands incessantly contain a query of life and demise; all criminals taken in flagrante delicto inside the precincts of town being first dedicated to the prisons of the Seraskier, whence the tidings of their crime and seize are transmitted to the Porte.

The portal of the Mosque may be very stunning, being elaborately wrought within the Saracenic style, with these receding dentated arches which look as if they had been shaped by stalactites ; and the battans of the gate itself being skilfully inlaid with mother-of-pearl, in arabesques. Its exterior galleries are additionally very gracefully designed, and the shape and style of its two slender minarets singularly pleasing.

The courtroom of the Mosque is a favorite rendezvous with the retailers buying and selling within the Tcharchi, who incessantly retire for a time from their retailers to smoke a chibouque beside the fountain, below the shadow of the maple-trees; or to finish there a cut price extra legitimately commenced within the nice mart itself; all industrial transactions of any extent being uniformly concluded over a pipe, or damaged off with the identical ceremony. Nor might it’s uninteresting to comment, that, at any time when a Turkish dealer decides on retiring for an hour’s rest from the labours of his calling, he doesn’t hassle himself to put his merchandise below lock and key, even on this in depth thoroughfare; however merely letting fall a tapestry curtain above the platform on which he’s accustomed to sit down and to show his wares, as a sign that he’s away, he goes quietly to the eoffee-kiosque with out one misgiving as to the security of his property, which is sacred throughout his absence; a belief within the public integrity which was by no means in any occasion recognized to be violated.

Probably the most outstanding object within the neighborhood

However essentially the most outstanding object within the neighborhood, is decidedly the } anguen Kiosque, or Fireplace Tower, which occupies a portion of the palace courtroom. It’s of immense top, of a round kind, and fully surrounded nearly at its summit by home windows, which command a view of each quarter of town; the house from which they open being the head-quarters of the fire-guard, six of whom are continually on obligation day and night time, relieving one another each second hour like army sentinels. At sun-set, in an effort to counteract the sensation of weariness which grows upon the watchers because the darkness gathers about them, the person on obligation wears a pair of picket slippers, with double heels, the decrease of which beats towards the ground by a spring at each step of the wearer, maintaining a perpetual noise fairly adequate to help his efforts towards sleep, though, when he resigns his watch, he throws himself down upon his mat, and slumbers in pleased heedlessness of the dissonance.

 

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Extremely ornamented

Your complete roof of the constructing is very ornamented, and sentences from the Koran, fantastically written within the oriental character, are scattered over the partitions. The mihrab, or area of interest on the japanese extremity of the edifice, occupying the place which, when the ground-plan of the Mahommcdan temples was borrowed from St. Sophia, was crammed bv the Christian altar, can be inscribed with the names of the Deity and the Prophets. The immense wax candles that Hank the raihrab are lighted each evening throughout the studying of the Koran by the officiating Kiatib.* These on the mosque of St. Sophia are eighteen inches in circumference, and final for twelve months; and the waxen giants of Suleimanie, though significantly smaller, are nonetheless of huge measurement ; however as these are merely imagined to gentle the holy web page of the priest, the physique of the constructing is illuminated by 1000’s of small colored lamps, suspended from the roof in varied units, by slight rods of iron, and producing to an European eye, a festal impact unusually incompatible with the sacred makes use of of the place.

However Sulcnnanie possesses one peculiar characteristic, to which it’s indebted for an curiosity past all the opposite mosques of Constantinople, and certainly one of so excessive and honourable a personality, that it’s much more price}- of file than its pillars of porphyry, or its “ crafty work” in glass and marble; and it’s of so distinctive a nature that it should not be handed over in silence.

A richly wrought gallery

A richly wrought gallery, extending alongside the entire northern face of the edifice, is heaped with chests of sundry sizes, and of all descriptions, from the impolite trunk of eypress-wood, painted a boring inexperienced, and adorned with big teams of flowers, tawdrily and clumsily executed — the treasure-hoard of the petty dealer, or the roving tatarf—to the heavy iron-clamped robust field of the exiled noble, or the wandering service provider: these are piled one on the opposite to the very roof of the constructing, and every is rigorously marked with some hieroglyphic identified solely to its absent proprietor, and to its short-term guardians. Every bundle, when obtained by the authorities at Sulcimanie, is described and registered with essentially the most scrupulous exactness; and when as soon as it has been deposited throughout the holy precincts of the mosque, it stays intact and inviolate, no matter time could elapse, or no matter modifications could ensue ere it’s reclaimed by its correct proprietor, both within the authorities, or the establishments of the Empire. The sacredness of the belief is felt, acknowledged, and revered ; and males of each nation, and professors of each creed, are free to deposit their property throughout the partitions of Suleimanie, safe of its restoration at any time when they could see match to reclaim it.

 

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Talking of The Turks

HOME COMING

We have been arriving at Constantinople, my native metropolis, from which I had been absent almost ten years. I had been in America all this time. At first my enterprise pursuits and later the final warfare had prevented my coming again to my very own nation even on a go to. I used to be of army age and Turkey was underneath blockade. After I had left Constantinople a number of years after the. Turkish revolution, the entire nation was exhilarated,  stuffed with pleasure, with ambition and with hope. Freedom and emancipation from an autocratic domination had been obtained. Nothing was to forestall the conventional advance of Turkey and the Turks alongside the highway to progress. We have been finally to acquire full recognition as a civilized nation. We have been finally to obtain equal deal with, ment from the opposite European nations.

However, alas, throughout the next years the gods determined in any other case. Lengthy, interminable wars both waged or fomented by neighbouring enemies had hampered the progress of Turkey. First in Tripolitania, then in Arabia and Albania, then once more within the Balkans and at last in the course of the common warfare the Turkish nation had been almost bled to demise. And now I used to be returning to my nation, and my native metropolis was groaning underneath a domination a thousand occasions worse even than autocracy: the domination of victorious international nations !

But I used to be elated; homecoming is all the time thrilling and the doorway to Constantinople by boat is all the time intoxicating. Apart from, I used to be newly married. My younger bride an American lady from New Orleans was with me and I used to be anxious to indicate her my nation so maligned by the worldwide press.

Our boat stopped on the Level of the Seraglio

Our boat stopped on the Level of the Seraglio and a tug introduced the Inter Allied management on board. The ship’s manifesto and the passports of all passengers needed to be examined by the representatives of the international armies of occupation. I used to be the one Turk on board and my spouse and I travelled after all on a Turkish passport. We had been obliged to acquire a particular allow from the InterAllied authorities earlier than we might even begin dwelling. I took my flip with my spouse, within the line of passengers. We confirmed our passport to the officer in cost: he glanced at it and seeing it was Turkish, requested us to attend.

Our passport was in excellent order, however I consider that only for the pleasure of humiliating a Turk the officer determined to look at everyone else’s passport earlier than mine, and stored me ready until the final. An Italian buddy of mine who occurred to journey with us, stood close to us to vouch for me in case of want. I used to be coming again to my very own nation and I’d want the help of a foreigner! Poor Turkey, what had occurred to you! Poor Turks, what had grow to be of our illusions of ten years in the past which .made us consider that being finally a free and democratic nation we might be acknowledged as a civilized nation, and would obtain equal remedy from the opposite European nations. Our hopes have been being systematically trampled underneath the spurred heels of foreigners, whose one want gave the impression to be to eradicate for ever even our selfrespect, the higher to destroy our freedom, the higher to hamper our march towards progress, the higher to annihilate our nationwide independence!

 

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Probably the most uncommon and expensive espresso and tobacco

In institutions, such because the one right here described, probably the most uncommon and expensive espresso and tobacco is served to the company, by the proprietor of the home ; however within the widespread run of Coiiee-kiosques, every particular person brings his personal tobacco in a small bag, which lie carries amid the folds of the scarf that lie wears about his waist, or, ought to he have adopted the brand new costume, in his bosom. A brazier, stuffed with heated charcoal, stands within the condominium, and the stranger is not any sooner seated, and has crammed his chibouque, (two virtually simultaneous operations,) than the cafejhe seizes a small reside coal in a pair of iron pincers, and deposits it on the summit of the tobacco. When the shopper lias smoked a number of lengthy whiffs, lie requires espresso, which is remodeled one other and bigger brazier, and banded to him in its minute cup of porcelain, standing in a metallic zarf,j| and the few paras which, on departing, are paid for the espresso, are thought-about a enough compensation to the attentive cafejhe for his house-room, his goblets of clear cool  water, and his exhausted charcoal, in addition to for the article for which they profess to pay.

There’s a marked distinction within the technique of smoking pursued by the higher class of Turks and that practised by the poorer orders. The rich and fastidious Effendi fills the houdaka * of his chibouque with the gentle and expensive tobacco of Salonica, which he inhales, till spherical the perimeters of the bowl a circle of white ash is fashioned, wliieh rises buoyantly from the superincumbent morsel of heated charcoal, when he instantly empties the boudaka, and flings the exhausted weed away, for its aroma has then perished, and the tobacco, to a connoisseur, has develop into nugatory ; whereas the boatmen and mechanics smoke the robust, coarse produce of Latakia, even to the final fragment. There are different types of the “ scented weed” imported from the Crimea, Ormus, Circassia, and totally different components of the East, however the two already quoted are by far the most well-liked, and probably the most extensively consumed.

Institutions at Constantinople

There have been, previously, institutions at Constantinople, referred to as Teriarki Tcharchi, or opium-houses, however these exist not; they had been carried out on the identical precept because the Espresso-Kiosqnes; however within the Teriarki Tcharchi, the comparatively innoxious use of tobacco was accompanied by that of opium, which was handed from visitor to visitor, made up into drugs. Certainly one of them, not appropriated to its authentic objective, hut quickly mouldering to decay, should be seen within the neighbourhood of the Mosque of Soli- manie. It differs in nothing from a standard coffee-house, save in its extent, which is appreciable; and the depressing victims to this singular vice, so painfully described by the Baron de Tott, practically 100 years in the past, are luckily not to be seen, as the usage of opium is now thought-about disgraceful by the Turks; and a person hooked on its use, is considered that nearly out of date animal, a sot, could be amongst ourselves.

 

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THE TASCH

“ A story of the occasions of previous.”

THE Tchernberle Tascli, or Burnt Pillar, is a hanging Roman stay, inside a brief stroll of the Scraskier’s Tower. It’s a relic of the Temple of Apollo at Rome, whence it was transported to Stamboul by Constantine, and positioned upon an hexagonal pedestal. It was surmounted by a wonderful statue of the god, from the immortal chisel of Phidias, which the conqueror appropriated with extra ambition than modesty, and beneath which he induced to be inscribed, “ The Justice of the Solar to the Illustrious Constantine.

The destruction of this noble statue is varied! described by totally different writers. Gcnaro Esquilichi asserts that it was overthrown by a thunderbolt; whereas the sententious Anna de Comnena mentions its prostration by a powerful southerly wind, through the reign of her kinsman Alexius; and furthermore declares that a number of individuals have been killed by its fall. Different authors converse extra vaguely, naming the storm-shock as a explanation for its partial destruction, and alluding to the second accident as having additionally tended to its closing demolition. The shaft of the pillar measures ninety ft in peak; it’s round, and girdled at common distances with garlands of laurel and oak- leaves; however its magnificence is completely gone, because it has suffered so severely from the repeated conflagrations in its speedy neighborhood, that it’s cracked in each route, and merely stored collectively by a powerful wirework, which has been fastidiously woven about it.

Measures thirty ft at its base

The pedestal upon which it stands measures thirty ft at its base, and is rendered fascinating by the actual fact, that a number of parts of the Holy Cross have been constructed up inside it, and that the area amid which it stood consequently turned a well-liked place of prayer, each mounted passenger reverently alighting from his horse as he handed earlier than it; however the Moslem, not recognising the divinity of the depends enshrined inside its strong masonry, nor the sanctity of the spot thus hallowed, have surrounded the pillar on each facet with imply and ugly homes; and it is just in a single solitary route that the anxious antiquary can acquire a passable view of this singular monument. The pedestal bears a Greek inscription, now almost obliterated, which has been translated thus:—

Christ, Grasp and Protector of the World, I dedicate to Thee this Metropolis, topic to Thee; and the Sceptre aud the Empire of Rome. Guard the Metropolis, and defend it from all evil!

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Appears a unprecedented composition

“ The substance of  the rock is shaped appears a unprecedented composition. It’s a type of breccia, of assorted colored lava, entice, basalt, and limestone, intersected by veins of agate, or chalcedony, of appreciable extent. It appears, in reality, an agglomeration of heterogeneous substances, fused collectively by the motion of intense fireplace. Put the color most predominant is blue or darkish inexperienced, arising from the presence of some metallic oxide. This lias conferred upon the rocks their comparatively trendy identify: after they had been not an object of terror, and ceased to crush ships between them, they misplaced their first appellation, and had been known as from their hue, Cyanean, a property which stays to today.”

Comparable to we’ve endeavoured to explain

In a season of storm, akin to we’ve endeavoured to explain, the ear of the wanderer lingering at Paglitche-Keui is extra thralled than the attention; for it’s only when the lightning shimmers for an prompt on the foam-crested waves by which the rocks are girdled, that the sublimity of the scene will be discerned,— when the “vexed Symplcgades” are battling with the billows, and the darkish coast casts again the watery cost with a moan of thunder, as if it mourned over the devastation which could be borne onward upon the wild and reckless storm-waves. The aqueduct ought to be visited at a extra genial season, for its broad sweep of prospect to be absolutely loved.

The valley of Buyukdere is the biggest glen on the European shore of the channel, extending for 5 – 6 miles, and boasting its historic curiosity in addition to its picturesque magnificence ; for right here it was, in a flower-laden meadow of a few mile in width, that the doughty Godfrey de Bouillon encamped his Crusaders within the 12 months 1097, after they had been on their solution to the siege of Micaea, —a memory which is usually renewed by the sight of Turkish tents on the identical spot; the meadow of Buyukderc being a favorite resort of the Sultan, who in the summertime months repairs thither to witness wrestling matches, the train of the jereed, and different athletic video games carried out within the open air.

Valley stands a platunus of monumental measurement

Close to the centre of the valley stands a platunus of monumental measurement, which is con- dered to be most likely the biggest on the planet. It measures forty-seven yards in circumference close to the foundation, and it’s asserted that its branches overshadow a round extent of upwards of 4 hundred toes. The big trunk is split into fourteen stems, the forks of a number of being now hidden by the soil which has collected above them, whereas others are distant as a lot as seven or eight toes from the earth. One has been damaged off at an immense peak, and one other is fully’ hole, apparently from fireplace, and is ceaselessly utilized by the goat-herds as a refuge throughout storms.

 

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